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Anatomy and Physiology

Final Review Sheet

 

Chapter 1 � Human Body Orientation

 

v     Anatomical position

v     Regional anatomy terms

v     Directional terms

v     Major functions, organs and characteristics of the 9 body systems (no reproductive and no lymphatic)

 

Chapter 4 � Integumentary System

 

v     Movement of skin cells

v     Effects of sun on skin (color)

v     Types of cancers

v     Types of burns and how they are classified

v     Structures of the skin and their functions

v     Different colors of skin and their causes

v     Be able to label a diagram of the skin

 

Chapter 14 � Digestive System

 

v     Alimentary canal organs

v     Major functions and characteristics of each organ

v     Chyme, bolus, peristalisis

v     Major enzymes of the digestive system, the organs they come from, where they work and what they break down

v     Mechanical/chemical digestion

v     Gallstones

v     The four organic compounds and their uses

v     Be able to label a diagram of the digestive system

 

Chapter 15 Urinary System

 

v     The pathway of urine through the body

v     Parts of the kidney

v     Nephrons

v     Functions of the kidneys

v     Steps of urine formation

v     Voiding, incontinence, urinary retention

Chapter 6 Muscular System

 

v     How muscles contract (sliding filament theory)

v     Desirable effects of aerobic exercise

v     The three ways ATP is supplied to muscles and the positive and negative effects of each

v     How muscle move bones

v     Energy source for muscle contraction

v     Three types of muscle tissue and major characteristics of each

v     Anabolic steroids, lactic acid, irritability, contractility sarcomere, hypertrophy, atrophy, anaerobic respiration, nerve impulse, fatigued

v     Be able to label the major muscles of the human body

 

Chapter 5 Bones

 

v     Functions of the skeletal system

v     Three types of bones

v     Names for the parts of a long bone

v     Hematopoiesis

v     Ephiphyseal plate

v     Simple/ compound fractures

v     Steps of ossification

v     Minerals responsible for bone strength

v     Reductions

v     Ligaments/tendons

v     Sprain, dislocation, articulation

v     Be able to label the major bones of the skeletal system

 

Chapter 10 Blood

 

v     Formed elements

v     Two components of blood

v     Agglutination, antibodies

v     Anemia

v     Blood types, antigens and antibodies

 

Chapter 11 Cardiovascular System

 

v     Function of the two sides of the heart

v     Layers of the heart muscle

v     Sites of gas exchange

v     Coronary arteries

v     How blood flows through the heart (oxygenated and deoxygenated)

v     Be able to label the parts of the heart

 

Chapter 13 Respiratory System

 

 

 

Essays

 

v     10 organ systems (minus lymphatic), functions and organs

v     Blood flow through the heart (words and diagrams)

v     Pathway food takes through the digestive system (organs, enzymes and organic compounds)

v     Long bone, its parts and what happens in the bone

 

 

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