• 4th Grade Number Activities

    The tables below provide examples of 4th Grade Number Activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. These activities are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking.

    All 4th grade number activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 4th grade number activities listed are in PDF format and can be accessed using Adobe Reader.


    Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems
    Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.
    Representing Multiplicative Comparison Problems

    4.OA2 Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.
    Possible Activities:
    Sample Multiplicative Comparison Problems

    4.OA3 Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.
    Possible Activities:
    Multistep Word problems
    Interpreting Remainders

    Gain familiarity with factors and multiples

    Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.
    Possible Activities:
    Finding Multiples
    Prime Number Hunt
    Common Multiples
    Least Common Multiple
    Find the Factor

    Generate and analyze patterns
    Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.
    Square Numbers
    Triangular Numbers


    Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers
    Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700÷70=10 by applying concepts of place value and division.

    4.NBT2 Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
    Numeral, Word and Expanded Form

    4.NBT3 Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.
    Possible Activities:
    Round to the Nearest Ten
    Round to the Nearest Hundred

    Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic
    Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
    Addition and Subtraction Number Stories

    4.NBT5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models
    Possible Activities:
    Multiplication Distributive Split
    Multiplication Number Story
    Breaking Apart a Factor
    Multiplication Bump (x100)
    Make the Largest Product
    Make the Smallest Product

    4.NBT6 Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division
    Possible Activities:
    Division Split (1 digit divisor)
    Estimate the QuotientNew!


    Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering
    Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (nxa)/(nxb) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.
    Possible Activities:
    Creating Equivalent Fractions
    Fraction Wall Game

    4.NF2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g. by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as ½. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with comparisons with symbols >, =, or <. and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
    Birthday Fractions
    Pattern Block Fractions
    Who Ate More?
    Fraction Compare
    Fraction Cards

    Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers
    4.NF3 Understand a fraction a/b with a>1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.
    a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
    Possible Activities:
    Adding Fractions with Like Denominators
    Adding Fractions Using Pattern Blocks
    The Chocolate Bar Problem
    Possible Read Aloud: (see task card in right hand column)
    - Ed Emberley's Picture Pie

    b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fraction with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8
    Decomposing Fractions

    c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
    Mixed Number Word Problems (like denominators)
    Adding Mixed Numbers
    Subtracting Mixed Numbers

    d. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
    Fraction Word Problems (like denominator)
    Addition Word Problems with Fractions
    Subtraction Word Problems with Fractions

    4.NF4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number:
    a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product of 5 x (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 x (1/4).
    Models for Fraction Multiplication

    b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 x (2/5) as 6 x (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n x (a/b) = (nxa)/b).

    c. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g. by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?
    Possible Activities:
    Whole Number x Fraction Word Problems
    Possible Read Aloud: (see task card in right hand column)
    - Full House: An Invitation to Fractions

    Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions
    4.NF5 Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.
    Possible Activities:
    Sums of 1

    4.NF6 Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.
    Possible Activities:
    Decimals in Money
    Representing Decimals with Base 10 Blocks
    Decimal Riddles
    Metric Relationships

    4.NF7 Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.
    Possible Activities:
    Comparing Decimals
    Decimal Sort

    Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit
    Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4ft snake as 48in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1,12), (2,24), (3,36)…
    Measurement Conversion Word Problems
    Measurement Concentration
    Metric Relationships
    Capacity CreatureNew!

    4.MD2 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions of decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a large unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
    Measurement Word Problems
    Elapsed Time Ruler 1
    Elapsed Time Ruler 2
    24 Hour Number Line (4 per page)

    4.MD3 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
    A Dinner Party
    Fencing a Garden
    Designing a Zoo Enclosure

    Represent and interpret data
    4.MD4 Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, ¼, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
    Length of Ants Line Plot
    Objects in My Desk Line Plot

    Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles
    Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed whenever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
    a. An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.
    b. An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.
    Angles in Names

    4.MD6 Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.
    Possible Activities:
    Predicting and Measuring Angles
    Angle Barrier Game
    Angles in Triangles
    Angles in Quadrilaterals

    4.MD7 Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.
    Unknown Angle Word Problems
    How Many Degrees?
    Angles in a Right Triangle
    Pattern Block AnglesNew!

    Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles
    Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.
    Possible Activities:
    Geoboard Line Segments
    Angles on the Geoboard
    Angle Barrier Game

    4.G2 Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.
    Possible Activities:
    Right Triangles on the Geoboard
    Isosceles Triangles on the Geoboard
    Constructing Quadrilaterals
    Quadrilateral Criteria
    Classifying Triangles 1
    Classifying Triangles 2
    Triangles on the Geoboard